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Why Do Companies Choose to Outsource Work?

Last Updated on March 20, 2024 by Richard Hall

In today’s fast-paced and competitive global business environment, companies are always looking for strategic avenues to help them stay ahead of the game. One such strategy that has gained significant popularity in recent years is outsourcing. By outsourcing non-core activities, companies can focus on their core competencies, reduce costs, and improve operational efficiency. In this article, we will look at outsourcing and how it has become a valuable tool for businesses looking to stay competitive in the modern world.

The Rise of Outsourcing

When companies delegate specific services or operations to third-party entities, they can tap into global talent and expertise, concurrently minimizing operational expenses. As such, outsourcing has not just become prevalent but crucial in the current enterprise landscape.

According to Capital Counselor, roughly 300,000 jobs are outsourced annually by the United States, with cost reduction being the top reason for outsourcing (70%). The global IT outsourcing market is projected to be worth $397.6 billion by 2025, a testament to the significance of this strategy. Additionally, larger companies are 66% more likely to embrace outsourcing than smaller businesses, further underscoring the substantial influence of this practice in the business world.

Considering these impactful statistics, it’s essential to ask: why do companies choose to outsource work?

The History of Outsourcing

Outsourcing originated in the 1950s and gained traction as a business strategy in the 1980s, mainly due to the emphasis on core competency strategies from the 1970s.

The first stage of outsourcing evolution occurred from the early to the late 1980s. Businesses used traditional outsourcing of non-core activities to reduce costs, shifting internal processes to external suppliers. The transaction cost approach, which emphasized cost-effective external sourcing, largely influenced this early outsourcing strategy.

The second phase happened between the early 1990s and 2000s when strategic outsourcing surfaced. This method outsourced business processes that directly affect performance and competitiveness. The goal extended beyond cost optimization to accessing external expertise to enhance capabilities.

The latest outsourcing phase, transformational outsourcing, started in the early 2000s. This approach offers adaptability to technological advances and changing business requirements. It sees the service provider as an extended enterprise that delivers innovation and operational benefits and aims to transform business processes, people, operations, and systems.

Types of Services Commonly Outsourced

Showing links and influence of business outsourcing worldwide.
Showing links and influence of business outsourcing worldwide.

Outsourcing is prevalent in the digital age, where highly specialized skill sets may not be available in-house. Numerous services can be delegated, but first, understand these outsourcing terms.

Business Process Outsourcing (BPO)

Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) refers to a practice where a company outsources certain operations to an external agency or a third party. These operations are not a part of the core functions of the business, but they are still crucial for the smooth functioning of the business.

Outsourcing vs. In-house Operations

Choosing between outsourcing and performing operations in-house often depends on several factors, including cost, the complexity of the operation, the strategic outsourcing advantages of the operation to the business, and the business’s capacity to handle the operation internally.

Outsourced services can include:

  • IT Services
  • Customer support/service
  • Sales and marketing
  • Finance and Accounting
  • Human resources and payroll
  • Manufacturing
  • R&D or new product development
  • Procurement and supply chain management
  • Health and legal services

It’s important to note that while the list above outlines the most commonly outsourced services, what works best can vary based on specific circumstances, objectives, and industry specifics.

Top Outsourcing Destinations

Different regions have become renowned as top outsourcing destinations due to their specialty in specific services, cost-effectiveness, and the skills and expertise available in their labor force. Some top outsourcing destinations globally include India, the Philippines, and Eastern Europe. Each location offers a unique blend of benefits depending on the services outsourced.

When considering outsourcing any part of your operations, due diligence and a thorough understanding of your specific needs and potential impacts are crucial.

The Economic Advantages of Outsourcing

The reasons and benefits behind outsourcing are manifold:

Cost-saving Through Outsourcing

Outsourcing often leads to significant cost savings, primarily because it enables businesses to delegate entire functions to specialists who provide the same service at a lower cost. Companies can capitalize on the economic disparities between countries, resulting in lower production costs due to differing economic conditions.

These savings may arise from wage variations, operational expenses, or material costs. Companies may also save on taxes depending on the outsourcing company’s location, the type of activity outsourced, and tax regulations in home and host countries.

For instance, by partnering with Professional Employer Organizations (PEOs), companies can effectively outsource essential HR functions such as recruiting, hiring, managing unemployment claims, and ensuring compliance. A study demonstrates that organizations using PEOs save an average of 27.2%, a striking indicator of outsourcing’s financial viability.

Currency Exchange Benefits

Outsourcing can leverage currency exchange rates to gain an economic advantage. When services are outsourced to countries with a weaker currency, significant savings can be achieved. For example, a US-based company outsourcing to India can spend less because of the stronger dollar against the rupee.

Financial Flexibility

Outsourcing enables companies to maintain financial flexibility amid uncertain demand. They pay only for what they need, scaling up or down more quickly. This flexibility allows companies to redirect resources towards high-value areas, fostering innovation and improving products or services.

Operational and Strategic Benefits of Outsourcing

Enhancing Efficiency

Outsourcing contributes significantly to improved operational efficiency, as evidenced by 24% of small businesses offshoring some processes to bolster efficiency. A company can focus on enhancing its primary operations by entrusting non-core tasks to external specialists. This strategy boosts productivity, improves output quality, reduces turnaround times, and lowers overheads.

This practice has gained global acceptance, with 78% of businesses affirming their confidence in outsourcing partners due to increased efficiency and productivity. This universal recognition underscores outsourcing’s role in fostering business growth and success.

Focus on Core Competencies

Outsourcing allows organizations to maintain a sharp focus on their core competencies, their unique strengths, and their most crucial activities. Outsourcing peripheral tasks lets organizations direct in-house resources towards areas offering strategic advantage. This can foster innovation, boost quality, hasten time-to-market, and generate a competitive edge.

Global Talent Acquisition

Outsourcing gives businesses access to a global talent pool. It allows companies to employ top-tier professionals worldwide who can perform tasks more efficiently and effectively. This expanded reach brings innovative ideas and expertise that may not be available internally.

Upwork’s Future Workforce Report 2022 reports that about 80% of hiring managers who engage skilled freelancers feel confident in finding necessary talent, compared to only 63% who do not engage freelancers. This figure highlights the assurance and value that global talent pools offer businesses.

Of those hiring freelancers, 85% claim doing so enables their business to access specialized skills or expertise. This shows that many companies utilize global talent pools to fulfill their specific skill needs, which are potentially rare or unavailable locally.

Scaling Operations and Market Expansion

Outsourcing allows businesses to scale operations more quickly and effectively, offering a critical advantage during new market entry or larger project management without substantial investments. Furthermore, leveraging established outsourcing providers can yield valuable insights to help businesses understand and prosper in new markets. Therefore, outsourcing significantly contributes to business expansion strategies.

Addressing Misconceptions

Outsourcing, though a crucial business strategy, is fraught with myths and misconceptions. We’ll address two common ones: the fear of losing control and concerns about declining quality.

Myth: Loss of Control

The misconception that businesses lose control by outsourcing their tasks is common.

Reality: While outsourcing demands some level of trust in decisions and process execution, it doesn’t inherently cause a loss of control. Proper contractual agreements and effective communication ensure you maintain strategic control over the outsourced activities.

Regular checkpoints, performance evaluations, comprehensive reporting systems, and open dialogues nurture the control you preserve over the outsourced tasks.

Myth: Quality Concerns

Many businesses fear that the quality of a product or service might be compromised when outsourced.

Reality: Businesses may naturally worry about maintaining quality standards when outsourcing. However, quality concerns mainly arise from hiring an incompetent service provider. A comprehensive selection process and clear quality expectations help mitigate this risk. Outsourcing can often boost quality.

Outsourcing lets you capitalize on the expertise and specialization of the global talent pool, potentially raising service quality. Moreover, most outsourcing providers possess their quality control measures, ensuring the output aligns with your standards.

Potential Risks of Outsourcing and Mitigation Strategies

While delegating offers numerous benefits, it also presents certain risks and challenges of outsourcing. Here are some potential risks and suitable strategies to mitigate them:

Risk: Lack of Quality Control

Businesses may face issues maintaining the desired quality standard once tasks are outsourced.

Mitigation Strategy: Before starting the project, establish clear standard operating procedures (SOPs), quality benchmarks, and service level agreements (SLAs). Conducting regular audits and performance reviews to monitor quality levels helps ensure consistency and adherence to desired standards.

Risk: Confidentiality and Security Concerns

Outsourcing can expose sensitive business data to third-party vendors, leading to security issues.

Mitigation Strategy: Include non-disclosure agreements (NDAs) in your contracts, conduct regular security audits, utilize secure communication channels, and share only essential information.

Risk: Communication Barriers

Language barriers, different time zones, and cultural differences can lead to potential miscommunication.

Mitigation Strategy: Establish clear and concise communication channels, opt for a vendor with a similar cultural background or a solid understanding of yours, and harness technology to manage time zone disparities.

Risk: Dependence on Third-party Vendor

Outsourcing important business operations can sometimes lead to over-reliance on the vendor.

Mitigation Strategy: Create a contingency plan to manage disruptions. Maintain a balance between in-house and outsourced operations. Retain control over strategic and critical operations.


Outsourcing is a complex decision, often motivated by cost savings, access to skilled expertise, focus on core activities, and business growth. However, it comes with its own set of challenges. Businesses must realize that outsourcing isn’t a one-size-fits-all solution.

The strategic importance lies in evaluating the advantages and disadvantages based on the company’s needs. The goal is to pinpoint tasks suitable for outsourcing and then efficiently manage associated risks. Handled this way, outsourcing evolves into a potent tool, aiding businesses in improving their operational efficiency and achieving strategic objectives.

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